Can we suppress the antipsychotic drug side-effects?

July 07 2016

Since their development in the 1950s, antipsychotic drugs have been widely used to treat psychoses and neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. A debilitating side-effect of these drugs called parkinsonism limits their efficacy.Irvine scientists led by Emiliana Borrelli, Inserm research director at University of California and colleagues have discovered the key cellular mechanism that underlies the antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism – which includes involuntary movements, tremors and other severe physical conditions. These studies present evidence that will stimulate a targeted approach for the design of novel antipsychotics without side-effects. The results have been published in Neuron on July, 6th.

The researchers report that antipsychotics side-effects are due to blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor in a specialized type of neurons in the striatum, called interneurons. Blockade of D2 receptor in these neurons increases neurotransmitter signaling (acetylcholine) above threshold on neighbor neurons leading to motor abnormalities in rodents (catalepsy) which correspond to parkinsonism in humans. Catalepsy is marked by severe muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli. Indeed, in mouse studies, the Borrelli team discovered that removing D2 receptors in nerve cells (cholinergic interneurons) did not result in catalepsy in the mice upon antipsychotic treatment.

Borrelli said the importance of this study is twofold.

It clarifies a long-waited mechanism that allows to explain the motor side-effects of antipsychotic drugs and will help future design of drugs deprived of nasty side-effects. It also generates important information for combined therapies (using drugs that block D2 but also acetylcholine receptors) that should be used to improve the life of people treated for debilitating psychiatric disorders.”

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Researcher Contact

Emiliana Borrelli
Directrice de recherche Inserm
Unité 904 “Contrôle épigénétique de la plasticité neuronale” (Inserm/Université de Californie)
+1 949 824 3875 

Press Contact

Inserm – Juliette Hardy

Université de Californie – Tom Vasich 


Parkinsonism Driven by Antipsychotics Originates from Dopaminergic Control of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

Geetika Kharkwal,1,5 Karen Brami-Cherrier,1,5 José E. Lizardi-Ortiz,2 Alexandra B. Nelson,3,4 Maria Ramos,1 Daniel Del Barrio,1 David Sulzer,2 Anatol C. Kreitzer,3 and Emiliana Borrelli1,*

1 Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, U904 INSERM/UCI, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
2 Departments of Neurology and Pharmacology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
3 The Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
4 Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
5 Co-first author

Neuron, July 6th

DOI: 10.1016/



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